ANALISIS DE ORINA ATLAS COLOR [LAURINE GRAFF SISTER] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Get this from a library! Graff: análisis de orina y de los líquidos corporales. [Lillian A Mundt; Laurine Graff; Kristy Shanahan]. Analisis de Orina Graff – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Analisis de orina.

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In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at a late stage. It covers quality assurance and management, including requirements of accrediting agencies.

Retrieved 30 March The test strips use a diazotization reaction in order to detect bilirubin. Publicado por Voroshilov en The kidney is unable to filter out this bilirubin as it is bound to protein, however, it is conjugated with glucuronic acid in the liver to form water-soluble conjugated bilirubin.

The test is more sensitive to albumin because albumin contains more amino groups to accept the hydrogen ions than other proteins. Unsolicited self-testing has become a popular measure in recent years as various urine test strips become available via pharmacy and online stores. The reaction is specific for glucose, as occurs in all enzymatic reactions, but it can provide some false positive results due to the presence of traces of strong oxidising agents or peroxide from disinfectants used on laboratory instruments.

It is normal to find up to 3 occasionally 5 leukocytes per high power field 40X in a urine sample, with women having slightly higher results owing to vaginal contamination.

They can measure calciumblood, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones, leukocytes, creatininemicroalbuminpH, ascorbic acid and protein. At a pH level of 3, both indicators appear yellow in the absence of protein. The hemoglobin precipitates out with the ammonia sulphate but not the myoglobin. The esterase reaction needs about 2 minutes to take place.


A positive test for leukocyte esterase normally indicates the presence of bacteria and a positive nitrite test although it is not always the case.

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Any amount of blood greater than five cells per microliter of urine is considered clinically significant, visual examination cannot be relied upon to detect the presence of blood. Views Read Edit View history. The anzlisis for nitrites is a rapid screening method for possible asymptomatic infections caused by nitrate-reducing bacteria. The aim of screening is early identification of likely patients by examination of large groups of the population.

False-positive reactions due to menstrual contamination may be seen. Retrieved 13 March When hemolytic disorders occur the amount of unconjugated bilirubin that is present in the blood increases causing an increase in hepatic excretion of conjugated bilirubin, resulting in increased amounts of urobilinogen that in turn causes an increase in reabsorption, recirculation and renal excretion.

Practical, focused, and reader friendly, this popular text teaches the theoretical and practical knowledge every clinical laboratory scientist needs to handle and analyze non-blood body fluids, and to keep them and their laboratory safe from infectious agents.

This applies particularly to diabeticswhere the idea of self-monitoring of the metabolic status determinations of glucose and ketones is self-evident.

This analiisis the escape of conjugated bilirubin into the circulation as occurs in hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis. Archived copy as title. The stercobilinogen can not be reabsorbed and remains in the intestine. An increase in the blood concentration orian ketone produces a water-electrolyte imbalancedehydration and if not corrected, acidosis and in the end diabetic coma.

Tira reactiva d’orina

gaff Negative results can be obtained in the presence of non nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Red blood cells settle to the bottom of the specimen container, and failure to mix the specimen prior to testing causes a falsely decreased graf. The 5th Edition has been completely updated to include all of the new information and new testing procedures that are important in this rapidly changing field.


This consists of adding 2. Archived from the original on Once blood has been detected, the microscopic examination can be used to differentiate between hematuria and hemoglobinuria.

Análisis de orina: atlas color – Laurine Graff – Google Books

Ketonuria indicates an insulin deficiency that indicates the need to regulate its dosage. Part of the urobilinogen is reabsorbed in the intestine then circulated in the blood to the liver where it is excreted. The measurement of specific gravity should not be confused with the measurement of osmotic concentrationwhich is more related to the number of particles than with their mass.

Large numbers of bacteria can react to reduce nitrite to nitrogen, which grxff give a false negative result.

Commercial brands measure pH in increments of 0. Any deterioration in liver function reduces its ability to process rgaff recirculated urobilinogen. The haem fraction of these proteins is toxic for the renal tubules and elevated concentrations can cause acute renal insufficiency.

The presence of blood in the urine is, of all the parameters normally tested, the one that is most closely related with traumatic damage to the kidneys or the genitourinary tract. Semi-quantitative values are usually reported as: Self-monitoring with urine test strips under the guidance of a health professional is an effective method for monitoring the disease state.

Last modified: April 21, 2020