ASTM D – Designation: D – 08 Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test. Buy ASTM D TEST METHODS FOR MEASURING ADHESION BY TAPE TEST from SAI Global. ASTM D Historical Standard: ASTM D Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test. SUPERSEDED (see Active link, below).
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Documents Flashcards Grammar checker. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
NOTE 1—This test method aastm been reported being used to measure adhesion of organic coatings on soft substrates for example, wood and plastic. Issues with plastic substrates are noted in Appendix X1. A similar test method, ISOpermits tests on soft substrates for example, wood and plaster.
Precision and bias data on the later is lacking. Test Methods D was developed with metal as the substrate and, in the absence of supporting precision and bias data, is so limited. NOTE 2—Subject to agreement between the purchaser and the seller, Test Method B can be used for thicker films if wider spaced cuts are employed.
ASTM D3359 Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
They do not distinguish between higher levels of adhesion for which more sophisticated methods of measurement are required. NOTE 3—It should be recognized that differences in adherability of the coating surface can affect the results obtained with coatings having the same inherent adhesion. Current edition approved June 1, Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D — The values given in parentheses are for information only.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. No further reproductions authorized. Summary of Test Methods 3. Significance and Use 4. Because the substrate and its surface preparation or lack of it have a drastic effect on the adhesion of coatings, a method to evaluate adhesion of a coating to different substrates or surface treatments, or of different coatings to the same substrate and treatment, is of considerable usefulness in the industry.
ASTM D – 08 Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
The intra- and inter-laboratory precision of this test method is similar to other widely-accepted tests for coated substrates for example, Test Method D and Test Method Dbut this is partly the result of it being insensitive to all but large differences in adhesion.
The limited scale of 0 to 5 was selected deliberately to avoid a false impression of being sensitive. Apparatus and Materials 5. It is of particular importance that the cutting edges be in good condition. Because of the variability in adhesion strength from batch-to-batch and with time, it is essential that tape from the same batch be used when tests are to be run in different laboratories.
If this is not possible the test method should be used only for ranking a series of test coatings. NOTE 4—Permacel P99 tape, previously identified as suitable for this purpose, was withdrawn from manufacture in July Current supplies of Permacel 99 on the market at this time have a shelf life that runs out in July Users of alternative tapes should check whether the alternative tapes give comparable results to the Permacel P99 tape.
If more information is required about the tapes being evaluated in the D NOTE 6—Coatings should be applied in accordance with Practice D, or as agreed upon between the purchaser and the seller. NOTE 7—If desired or specified, the coated test panels may be subjected to a preliminary exposure such as water immersion, salt spray, or high humidity before conducting the tape test.
The conditions and time of exposure will be governed by ultimate coating use or shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and seller. For tests in the field, ensure that the surface is clean and dry. Extremes in temperature or relative humidity may affect the adhesion of the tape or the coating. After immersion, clean and wipe the surface with an appropriate solvent which will not harm the integrity of the coating.
Then dry or prepare the surface, or both, as agreed upon between the purchaser and the seller. When making the incisions, use the straightedge and cut through the coating to the substrate in one steady motion.
If the substrate has not been reached make another X in a different location. Do not attempt to deepen a previous cut as this may affect adhesion along the incision. Remove an additional length at a steady that is, not jerked rate and d3539-08 a piece about 75 mm 3 in. Smooth the tape into place by finger in the area of the incisions and then rub firmly with the eraser on the end of a pencil. The color under the transparent tape is a useful indication of when good contact has been made.
For large structures make sufficient tests to d3359–08 that the adhesion evaluation is representative of the whole surface. Discard cutting tools that develop nicks or other defects that tear the film.
If the adhesion strength of the tape has not been determined, report the specific tape used and its manufacturer. Precision and Bias5 9. Apparatus and Materials It is of particular importance that the cutting edge or edges be in good condition. It should be noted, however, that multitip cutters7 provide good results only on test areas sufficiently plane that all awtm edges contact the substrate to the same degree.
Check for flatness with a straight edge such as that of the tempered steel rule After drying or testing the coating, conduct the tape test at room temperature as defined in Specification D, unless D standard temperature is required or agreed. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee,1 which you may attend.
Cut through the film to the substrate in one steady motion using just sufficient pressure on the cutting tool to have the cutting edge reach the substrate.
When making successive single cuts with the aid of a guide, place the guide on the uncut area. If the metal has not been reached make another grid in a different location. To ensure good contact with the film rub the tape firmly with the eraser on the end of a pencil.
The color under the tape is a useful indication of when good contact has been made. D335-08 the adhesion in accordance with the following scale illustrated in Fig. Small flakes of the coating are detached along edges and at intersections of cuts. The coating has flaked along aztm edges and on parts of the squares. The coating has flaked along the edges of cuts in large awtm and whole squares have detached. Flaking and detachment worse than Grade 1. However, the precision values given in Precision and Bias5 As Mittal 1 9 has pointed out, the answer is both yes and no.
It d33559-08 reasonable to state xstm at the present time no test exists that can precisely assess the actual physical strength of an adhesive bond. But it can also be said that it is possible to obtain an indication of relative adhesion performance.
Criticism of these tests arises when they are used to quantify the strength of adhesive bonding. But this, in fact, is not their purpose. Direct tests include the Hesiometer and the Adherometer 2. Common methods which approach the direct tests are peel, lapshear, and tensile tests.
Criteria deemed essential for a test to warrant large-scale acceptance are: These tests do not strictly meet all the criteria listed, but an appealing aspect of these tests is that v3359-08 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the list of references at the end of this test method.
There generally is difficulty, however, in relating these tests to basic adhesion phenomena. In its simplest version a piece of adhesive tape is pressed against the paint film and the resistance to and degree of film removal observed when the tape is pulled off.
ASTM D 3359 – 09 Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
Since an intact film with appreciable adhesion is frequently not removed at all, the severity of the test is usually enhanced by cutting into the film a figure X or a cross hatched pattern, before applying and removing the tape. Adhesion is then rated by comparing film removed against an established rating scale. If an intact film is peeled cleanly by the tape, or if it debonds just by cutting into it without applying tape, then the adhesion is rated simply as poor or very poor, a more precise evaluation of such films not being within the capability of this test.
Both test methods are used to establish whether the adhesion of a coating to a substrate is at an adequate level; however they do not distinguish between higher levels of adhesion for which more sophisticated methods of measurement are required. Major limitations of the tape test are its low sensitivity, applicability only to coatings of relatively low bond strengths, and non-determination of adhesion to the substrate where failure occurs within a single coat, as when testing primers alone, or within or between coats in multicoat systems.
For multicoat systems where adhesion failure may occur between or within coats, the adhesion of sstm coating system to the substrate is not determined. Applied to metals, it is economical to perform, lends itself to job site application, and most importantly, after decades of use, people feel comfortable with it.
It is assumed that coating removal occurs when the tensile force generated along the latter interface, which is a function of the rheological properties of the backing and adhesive layer materials, is greater than the bond strength at the coating-substrate interface or cohesive strength of the coating.
In actuality, however, this force is distributed over a discrete distance O-A in Fig. A significant compressive force arises from the response of the tape backing material to being stretched. Thus both tensile and compressive forces are involved in adhesion tape testing. The central issues are that the test on plastics lacks reproducibility and does d33359-08 relate to the intended asstm. Both concerns are well founded: More importantly, in this instance the test is being applied beyond its intended scope.
These test methods were designed for relatively ductile coatings applied to metal substrates, not for coatings often brittle applied to plastic parts 7. The unique functional requirements of coatings on plastic substrates cause the usual tape tests to be unsatisfactory for measuring adhesion performance in practice.
Differences in tapes used can lead to different results as small changes in backing stiffness and adhesive rheology cause large changes in the tension area. Some commercial tapes are manufactured to meet minimum standards. A given lot may surpass these standards and thus be suitable for general market distribution; however, such a lot may be a source of serious and unexpected error in assessing adhesion.
Also, because tapes change on storage, bond strengths of d3539-08 tape may change over time 7, 8. For example, when the peel removal force of the tape from the coating used earlier by Task Group D Several factors that contribute awtm these differences include coating composition and topology: Further, the tape test does not give an absolute value for the force required for bond rupture, but serves only as an indicator that some minimum value ast, bond strength was met or exceeded 7, 8.
By design it was made as simple as possible to perform, and requires a minimum of specialized equipment and materials that must meet certain specifications.