The versatile Knorr pyrrole synthesis is an important route to pyrroles it involves the condensation of a β-keto ester with an α-amino ketone An important pyrrole synthesis, known as the Knorr synthesis, is of the cyclizative condensation type. An α-amino ketone furnishes a nucleophilic nitrogen and. Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Schematic representation of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis. Mechanism of the Knorr Pyrrole.

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Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis

George Kleinspehn reported that the Fischer—Fink connectivity could be forced to occur exclusively, by the use of diethyl oximinomalonate in the synthesis, with 2,4-pentanedione, korr its 3-alkyl substituted derivatives. The imine then tautomerizes to an enamine, followed by cyclization, elimination of water, and isomerization to the pyrrole. Zinc dust was then stirred in, reducing the oxime group to the amine.

Amarnath tried to stabilize or destabilize the immonium ion with different aryl groups as substituents:. Site Search any all words Main Categories.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis – Wikipedia

The usual way of doing this is from the relevant oximevia the Neber rearrangement. It will proceed at room temperature. Ring forming reactions Nitrogen heterocycle forming reactions Heterocycle forming pyrroke Carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions Name reactions.

Benzyl groups can be removed by catalytic hydrogenolysis over palladium on carbonand tertiary-butyl groups can be removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acidor boiling aqueous acetic acid.

Even thioesters have been successfully prepared, using the method. Both of these products resulted from the loss of the acetyl group from the inferred ethyl 2-aminoacetoacetate intermediate. The nitro group has in every situation had a positive effect on the reaction rate.


This page was last edited on 17 Februaryat The use of ammonia should give an uncharged intermediate and is therefore less affected by the choice of substitutents.

The mechanism of the Knorr pyrrole synthesis begins with condensation of the amine and ketone to give an imine. In Elderfield, Robert Cooley. A mechanism that accounts for the influence of different substitution patterns mesodl and explains the influence of a p -nitrophenyl group making a nucleophile more reactive although not as the imine includes the cyclization of a hemiacetal which is followed by different dehydration steps:.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Venkataraman Amarnath has shown J. One equivalent of sodium hydroxide will saponify the 2-ester selectively.

Ethyl and benzyl esters are easily made thereby, and the reaction is noteworthy in that even the highly hindered tert -butyl alcohol gives very high yields in this synthesis. The substituents also influence the basicity of the imine, with the nitro group leading to a more basic nucleophile.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis

The mechanism requires zinc and acetic acid as catalysts. Saidi, Synlett, Retrieved from ” https: The two ester positions can be more smoothly differentiated by incorporating benzyl or tert -butyl groups via the corresponding acetoacetate esters.

Knorr’s pyrrole can be derivatized in a number of useful manners. Any mechanism such as the following one that involves the formation of an enamine before the rate-determining step – the cyclization – must be ruled out. Hans Fischer and Emmy Fink found that Zanetti’s synthesis from 2,4-pentanedione and ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate gave ethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrolecarboxylate ppyrrole a trace snythesis.

This reduction consumes two equivalents of zinc and four equivalents of acetic acid. Annalen der Chemie in German. The reaction can be conducted under neutral or weakly acidic conditions. The methoxy group has a negative effect on the cyclization rate in each case.


Canadian Journal of Chemistry. An improved synthesis of ethyl pyrrolecarboxylate esters from diethyl aminomalonate”. The resulting product, diethyl 3,5-dimethylpyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate, has been called Knorr’s Pyrrole ever since. The Knorr pyrrole synthesis is a widely used chemical reaction that synthesizes substituted pyrroles 3. If the ring is formed from an imine that is generated from a primary amine, a charged immonium ion must be an intermediate.

Modern practice is to add the oxime solution resulting from the nitrosation and the zinc dust gradually to a well-stirred solution of ethyl acetoacetate in glacial acetic acid.

Sybthesis of the Chemical Society Resumed: Chemische Berichte in German. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft in German. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. The Paal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis is the condensation of a 1,4-dicarbonyl compound with an excess of a primary amine or ammonia to give a pyrrole.

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Scheeren, Tetrahedron, 60 A synthesis of coproporphyrin III”. The original Knorr synthesis employed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetateone of which was converted to ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate by dissolving it in glacial acetic acidand slowly adding one equivalent of saturated aqueous sodium nitriteunder external cooling.

A more detailed description can be found in the work by Venkataraman Amarnath, and references cited therein J. Levi and Zanetti extended the Knorr synthesis in to the use of acetylacetone 2,4-pentanedione in reaction with ethyl 2-oximinoacetoacetate.

Preparation of Pyrroles G.

Last modified: April 19, 2020