Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale Scores on the X-axis and Number of Top- Down Errors in the Semantic Task on the Y-axis. Using partial correlations, we. Keywords: Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS-R); Predisposition to hallucinations; Misattribution of source; Intrusive thoughts The Launay–Slade. The Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS-R) (Launay Slade, ; Bentall & Slade, a) is a frequently used measure of predisposition to hallucinations.

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Quality of hallucinatory experiences: differences between a clinical and a non-clinical sample

Prin- cipal component analyses identified three factors characterised as 1 vivid mental events, 2 hallucinations with a religious theme, and 3 auditory and visual hallucinatory experiences. The current factor structure is similar to the factors obtained by Levitan, Ward, Catts and Hemsley for participants with a psychiatric disorder and a history of auditory hallucinations, supporting the view that hallucinations exist on a continuum with normal experiences.

In support, a surprisingly large number of indivi- duals in the normal population report a history of hallucinatory experience. For example, Bentall and Slade a found that Although the scale has frequently been utilised in research as a method for measuring predisposition to auditory hallucinations in healthy indivi- duals e. When Scalle and Slade developed the item scale, which required participants to respond either true or false to each item, a principal component analysis PCA on the scores of participants prisoners, 54 controls and 42 psychiatric patients with auditory hallucina- tions revealed a two-factor solution.

The first factor, characterised as tendency hallucinahion hallucinatory experience, accounted for Possibly applies Certainly applies 1. No matter how hard I try to concentrate, 2.

In my daydreams I can hear the sound of a 2. Sometimes my thoughts seem as real as 2. Sometimes a passing thought will seem so 1. The sounds I hear in my daydreams are 2. The people in my daydreams seem so true 1.

I often hear a voice speaking my thoughts aloud 1. In the past, I have had the experience of hearing hallucinatikn.

I have heard the voice of the Devil 0. In the past, I have heard the voice of God 0. I have been troubled by hearing voices in my head 0.

PCA with varimax rotation on the scores of psychiatric patients with a history of auditory hallucinations yielded four factors accounting for The factors were characterised as vivid dreams items 2, 3, 5, 6 and 9clinical auditory hallucinations items 7, 9, 10, 11 and 12intrusive or vivid thoughts items 1, 3, 4 and 12 and subclinical auditory hallucinations items 8 and 9.

The PCA analysis yielded a three-factor solution characterised by general hallucinatory tendency items 1, 2, 7, 8, 10 and 12subjective externality of thought items 3, 4 and 11 and vividness of daydreams items 5, 6 and Item 9 loaded on the first factor according to the PCA with oblique rotation on the raw data, or on the third factor after the data were transformed. The aim of the present study was to administer the LSHS-R to a larger sample of English speaking healthy participants in order to test the stability of its factor structure.


Method Five hundred and sixty-two first-year undergraduate psychology students males and females took part in this study. The mean age of participants was Total scores can range from 0 to A number of outliers were also identified for these items defined as scores more than 3 S.

These were trimmed to the score 3 S. The trimmed scores were used in all subsequent analyses. Total scores ranged from 0 to 43 and the mean total score was Table 1 presents the mean score and the percentage of students endorsing the positive response sets for each item on the scale.

The factor structure of the 12 variables was initially examined by PCA. PCA with an oblique rotation Oblimin with Kaiser normalization was carried out as reported in Aleman et al. A Keiser—Meyer—Olkin statistic of 0. On this basis, three factors accounting for The rotated factor loadings above.

The first factor, which accounted for The second and third factors accounted for In contrast to the first factor, these two latter factors have in common that the experience is directly attributed to another source God, the Devil or attribution of the experience to another source is implied.

The same factor structure was obtained when the outliers were not trimmed. Principal factor analysis was subsequently carried out in order to check the fit of the PCA. It revealed exactly the same factor loadings as the PCA with the only difference being that item 1 Table 2 Three-factor Oblimin solution showing item loadings above 0. The sounds I hear in my daydreams are 0. In my daydreams I can hear the sound of a tune 0.

Sometimes my thoughts seem as real as actual 0. The people in my daydreams seem so true to life 0. Sometimes a passing thought will seem so real 0. No matter how hard I try to concentrate, 0. In the past, I have had the experience of hearing a 0. I often hear a voice speaking my thoughts aloud 0. In addition, in case the use of the oblique rotation on the PCA was not appropriate because the factors were in fact independent, PCA with Varimax rotation was carried out.

This analysis identified similar factors as those obtained with PCA with oblique rotation with the only difference being that Factor III now accounted for more of the variance These analyses suggest that the factors identified with the PCA were fairly robust and that three separate factors may be identified.

Discussion The current study aimed to extend our knowledge about the factors underpinning the LSHS-R in a large sample of English speaking students. A factor analysis identified three factors accounting for The attribution of the experience separates Factor I from Factors II and III and sug- gests that this may reflect different facets of the hallucinatory experience.

All the items repre- sented in each of the three factors appear to be appropriately characterised by the factor labels. An important argument for the validity of this solution is that repeated factor analyses with dif- ferent rotations yielded practically identical solutions. The contents of the present three-factor solution have little in common with the three factors previously obtained by Aleman et al.


The reasons for this discrepancy are not clear although, of particular note, their total mean score was lower than that reported in previous studies suggesting that their Dutch translation of the scale may be somewhat different from the original English version.

Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised (LSHS-R) – Allie: Abbreviation / Long Form Info.

The current results are actually closer to Levitan et al. However, only a small percentage of normal participants in the present study endorsed items with a religious theme. This suggests that a delusional interpretation of the hallucinatory phenomenon may differentiate the experience of healthy participants from that of psychiatric patients. In order to identify whether this factor is critical in differentiating psy- chiatric patients and healthy participants, future research should obtain detailed item endorse- ment frequencies in a psychiatric sample for comparison with the current ratings on healthy participants.

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What is the relationship between predisposition to hallucinations and schizotypy? Given increasing evidence that hallucinations have a distinctive cognitive basis in schizophrenia e.

Finally, the experience of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia is frequently described as intrusive and vivid—the mechanisms underlying the intrusiveness have been linked to deficits in inhibition Waters et al, in press.

The first factor haloucination the current analysis of the LSHS-R suggests that vivid and perhaps intrusive mental events may also be part of the predisposition to halluci- nations in healthy individuals. In addition, the current results also alade attention to an important distinction between intrusive experiences which are halljcination as belonging to the self and other intrusive experiences which are misattributed.

The attribution of internal mental events to another source is a characteristic feature of auditory hallucinations in psychopathology, and in particular haloucination. Our results suggest that a cognitive deficit in source attribution may be present only in those individuals scoring high on items 7—12 of the LSHS-R.

Further research launaay needed to investigate this prediction and to attempt to replicate the current factor structure of the LSHS-R. Multi-dimensionality of hallucina- hallucinqtion predisposition: Personality and Individual Differences, 30, — The multidimensional nature of schizotypal traits: British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 28, — Reality testing and auditory hallucinations: British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, — Reliability of a scale measuring disposition towards hallucination: Personality and Individual Differences, 6 4— Auditory and hallucinahion hallucinations in university students.

Personality and Individual Differences, 17 2— Individual differences in reaction to brief exposure to unpatterned visual stimula- tion. Personality and Individual Differences, 7 1— The measurement of hallucinatory predisposition in male and female prisoners.

Per- sonality and Individual Differences, 2, — Predisposition toward auditory hallucinations: Personality and Individual Differences, 21 2— Psychological Medicine, 26, — Reality discrimination, reality monitoring and disposition towards halluci- nation. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, — The content and structure of schizotypy: A study using confirmatory factor analysis.

Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26 3— Disposition towards hallucination, gender and EPQ scores:

Last modified: July 22, 2020